‘Parts of Speech’ is the soul of language. They are very essential ingredients used in making meaningful phrases and sentences. A real beauty of grammar is obviously the Parts of Speech, as they show us how words relate to each other.
Part of Speech is a category of words which explains how the word is used. It shows how words are assigned with their syntactic functions. It is the major aspect of language which enables us to think about the meaning as well as function of the word. It is very important to note that each word functions independently in sentences.
Due to their different natures and functions in the sentences, words are categorized into eight parts.
Noun is the word that refers to a thing, a person, a place, an idea, a quality or an event.
e.g. Box, House, Julie, Benjamin, London, New York, Joy, Honesty, Brilliance, Generosity, Day, Lightning etc.
TYPES OF NOUNS
A Noun that indicates a particular thing, person or place. It always remains in capital letter.
e.g. Paris, Dubai, Arthur, Javed, January, Monday, Earth, Britain, Amazon, Titanic, Sony, Samsung etc.
A Noun that indicates a thing, idea, person, animal or place in a class or group. It doesn’t remain in capital letter.
e.g. book, chair, phone, father, teacher, man, baby, shop, lion, elephant, bird, city, nation, garden, love, anger etc.
A Noun that indicates a collection of people, things, animals etc.
e.g. herd, group, crowd, class, hospital, bunch, team, colony, family, gang, set etc.
A Noun that indicates a material from which different things are made. It is not counted in numbers.
e.g. water, oil, gold, cotton, rubber, wool, sand, honey, meat, plastic, air, coal, chemical etc.
A Noun that indicates an idea, quality, feeling or concept. They cannot be seen or touched, they can only be experienced.
e.g. love, hate, kindness, truth, danger, courage, beauty, fear, honesty, patience, strength, ability, luck etc.
A Noun that indicates any living or non-living thing. It can easily be seen, touched, tasted, heard or smelled
e.g. ball, stone, tree, man, bag, dog, gate, egg, frog, bus, train, apple, hotel, milk, piano, salt, sofa, etc.
A Noun that indicates the things which we can count using numbers. They are singular as well as plural. Words like ‘few, many, less, little, much, least, one, two, three etc.’ are used before them
e.g. car/cars, dog/dogs, book/books, house/houses, man/men, thief/thieves, player/players, paper/papers, bag/bags etc.
A Noun that indicates the things which we cannot count using numbers. They are always singular.
e.g. water, information, gas, rain, advice, grief, sleep, important, joy, knowledge, magic, luck, moonlight etc.
A Noun that indicates the combination of two or more words. Each Compound Noun acts as a single unit. It can be modified by adjectives or other nouns.
e.g. haircut, cowboy, aircraft, baseball, inland, railway, outdoor, landslide, ice cream, gateway, rainbow, bedroom etc.
A Noun that indicates the possession of something. Generally it is formed by adding apostrophes. They are both singular and plural.
e.g. cat’s, boss’s, Sam’s, Mary’s, people’s, Florida’s, sun’s, one’s, shirt’s, dentist’s, children’s, men’s, visitor’s etc.
Pronoun is the word which is used instead of noun or noun phrase. It takes the place of a noun.
e.g. I, we, you, you, he, she, it, they, my, these, whom, some etc.
TYPES OF PRONOUNS
A Pronoun that indicates a word used as substitute for a particular person. They are used as subject, object or complement.
e.g. I, you, he, she, it, we they, me, him, her, us, them etc.
A Pronoun that indicates the possession or ownership in a phrase or sentence. It shows that something belongs to someone.
e.g. my, our, your, his, her, its, their, mine, ours, yours, hers, theirs etc.
A Pronoun that refers or reflects back to the subject of a sentence or clause. It is used as a direct object.
e.g. myself, yourself, himself, herself, oneself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves etc.
A pronoun that indicates the connection of clause or phrase with noun or pronoun. They are introduced relatively or dependently.
e.g. that, who, whom, whose, which, when, where etc.
A Pronoun that indicates the mutual sharing of something in person or persons. It is used to identify an action or feeling.
e.g. each other, one another
A Pronoun that indicates something specific, replacing noun. It shows the distance and difference between two things.
e.g. this, that, these, those, such, none, neither etc.
A Pronoun that indicates one or more uncertain objects, beings, or places. They do not indicate the specific thing.
e.g. all, any, more, most, both, few, many, neither, none, each, every, some, anyone, nobody etc.
A Pronoun that indicates a word used to ask a question or to get information. There are only five Interrogative Pronouns in English.
e.g. what, who, which, whom, and whose.
Adjective is the word which provides information about noun or pronoun. Adjective describes or modifies a noun.
e.g. happy, clever, many, few, thirty, hundred, this, that, who, how, a, an, the etc.
TYPES OF ADJECTIVES
An Adjective that indicates quality, degree or kind of a person, place or thing. It adds more information about Noun, such as color, size or shape.
e.g. big, white, rich, red, poor, happy, beautiful, hungry, lucky, amazing, large, brown, thick, fat, small etc.
An Adjective that indicates the exact or approximate amount or quantity. It describes the measurement, but not in exact numbers.
e.g. enough, few, any, some, much, more, little, sufficient, whole, all, several, most, each, either, neither etc.
An Adjective that indicates relative position of a noun. It helps to identify a specific person, place or thing.
e.g. this, that, these, those
An Adjective that indicates the possession of the noun. It is modifier, which demonstrates noun’s ownership.
e.g. my, your, his, her, their, its, our
An Adjective that indicates the modification of a noun by asking a question.
e.g. which, what, whose
An Adjective that indicates the reference of each person or thing separately. It is always used with singular noun.
e.g. each, every, any, either, neither, one, both etc.
Numerical Adjectives/Adjectives of Number
An Adjective that indicates a number or numerical order. It denotes the number of noun, also the order in which it stands.
e.g. one, two, three, thirty seven, hundred, first, second, third, fiftieth, twelfth, last etc.
An Adjective that is used as Article. Basically, an Article is known as an Adjective. It is used to indicate Definite or Indefinite situation.
e.g. a, an, the
Verb is the word which shows action, event or state. It is known as the key word in the sentence.
e.g. give, write, play, became, made, am, is, are, do, did etc.
TYPES OF VERBS
A Verb that indicates an action. It further indicates what the subject is doing or has done or will do.
e.g. run, make, take, give, show, sit, go, write, think, walk, talk, sing, play, bring, dance, jump, think etc.
Action Verbs can be either transitive or intransitive.
– used with an object
– always followed by a direct or indirect object
– accepts one or more objects
I like to play football.
We need to keep our body healthy.
Julie loves animals and birds.
Have you cleaned the room?
Did they complete the online course?
Can I use your phone?
Shall we sit in the hall?
– used without an object
– never followed by a direct or indirect object
– may followed by an adverb
The shop opens at 9 am.
The singers sing.
They suddenly appeared.
It rained heavily last night.
Laura rises slowly from her seat.
We stayed in Jerusalem for two weeks.
To die is better than to surrender.
A Verb that connects or links a subject to the predicate in the sentence. Linking verb systematically connects to noun or adjective. Grammatically, this noun or adjective is called Subject Complement. Linking Verb proves the power and status of action. It gives information about subject.
Smith became a professional singer.
(The Verb became links the Subject Smith to its Complement a professional singer)
My brother is in government service.
(The Verb is links the Subject My brother to its Complement in government service)
I feel very happy when someone praises me.
Sometimes, they behave like a joker .
Antony is fond of reading stories.
It is raining heavily outside.
The boy seemed nervous after exam.
They were in the library when the teacher came.
A Verb that comes before the main verb is called Helping Verb. Helping verb and main verb form a Verb phrase. Grammatically, Helping Verb is known as Auxiliary Verb. There are two types of Helping Verb
To be– am, is, are, was, were, being, been, will be
To have– have, has, had, having, will have
To do– do, does, did, will do
can, could, shall, should, will, would,
may, might, must, ought to, used to,
need to, dare to, have to
Adverb is the word which provides extra information about verb, adjective or other adverb. It helps to modify and qualify verb, adjective or other adverb.
e.g. globally, seriously, more, quite, very, too, always, inside, daily etc.
TYPES OF ADVERBS
Adverbs of Time
Adverbs of Place
Adverbs of Manner
Adverbs of Reason
Adverbs of Degree
Adverbs of Frequency
Adverbs of Negation
Adverbs of Interrogation
Preposition is the word which expresses the relationship between a noun and other words. It is always followed by a noun or pronoun.
e.g. in, on, of, over, at, between etc.
Types of Prepositions
Prepositions of Time
Prepositions of Place
Prepositions of Manner
Prepositions of Movement
Prepositions of Agent
Prepositions of Measure
Conjunction is the word which links words, phrases and sentences. It is an invariable element of English grammar.
e.g. and, or, but, yet, as neither, so, whether etc.
Types of Conjunctions
Interjection is the word which shows strong and spontaneous feelings, emotions and sentiments. These expressions are presented in a shortest way.
e.g. Ah! Alas! Ouch! Well! Best luck! Amazing! Outstanding! Exactly!
Types of Interjections
Interjections of Greetings
Interjection for Surprise
Interjections for Praise
Interjections for Joy
Interjections for Attention
Interjections for Sorrow