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PARTS OF SPEECH

PARTS OF SPEECH-Globalenglishcreativity.com

‘Parts of Speech’ is the soul of language. They are very essential ingredients used in making meaningful phrases and sentences. A real beauty of grammar is obviously the Parts of Speech, as they show us how words relate to each other.

Part of Speech is a category of words which explains how the word is used. It shows how words are assigned with their syntactic functions. It is the major aspect of language which enables us to think about the meaning as well as function of the word. It is very important to note that each word functions independently in sentences.

Due to their different natures and functions in the sentences, words are categorized into eight parts.


NOUN

Noun is the word that refers to a thing, a person, a place, an idea, a quality or an event.
e.g. Box, House, Julie, Benjamin, London, New York, Joy, Honesty, Brilliance, Generosity, Day, Lightning etc.

TYPES OF NOUNS

Proper Noun
A Noun that indicates a particular thing, person or place. It always remains in capital letter.
e.g. Paris, Dubai, Arthur, Javed, January, Monday, Earth, Britain, Amazon, Titanic, Sony, Samsung etc.

Common Noun
A Noun that indicates a thing, idea, person, animal or place in a class or group. It doesn’t remain in capital letter.
e.g.  book, chair, phone, father, teacher, man, baby, shop, lion, elephant, bird, city, nation, garden, love, anger etc.
    

Collective Noun
A Noun that indicates a collection of people, things, animals etc.
e.g.  herd, group, crowd, class, hospital, bunch, team, colony, family, gang, set etc.

Material Noun
A Noun that indicates a material from which different things are made. It is not counted in numbers.
e.g. water, oil, gold, cotton, rubber, wool, sand, honey, meat, plastic, air, coal, chemical etc.
          
Abstract Noun
A Noun that indicates an idea, quality, feeling or concept. They cannot be seen or touched, they can only be experienced.
e.g. love, hate, kindness, truth, danger, courage, beauty, fear, honesty, patience, strength, ability, luck etc.

Concrete Noun
A Noun that indicates any living or non-living thing. It can easily be seen, touched, tasted, heard or smelled 
e.g. ball, stone, tree, man, bag, dog, gate, egg, frog, bus, train, apple, hotel, milk, piano, salt, sofa, etc.

Countable Nouns
A Noun that indicates the things which we can count using numbers. They are singular as well as plural. Words like ‘few, many, less, little, much, least, one, two, three etc.’ are used before them
e.g.  car/cars, dog/dogs, book/books, house/houses, man/men, thief/thieves, player/players, paper/papers, bag/bags etc.

Uncountable Nouns
A Noun that indicates the things which we cannot count using numbers. They are always singular.   
e.g. water, information, gas, rain, advice, grief, sleep, important, joy, knowledge, magic, luck, moonlight etc.

Compound Nouns
A Noun that indicates the combination of two or more words. Each Compound Noun acts as a single unit. It can be modified by adjectives or other nouns.
e.g. haircut, cowboy, aircraft, baseball, inland, railway, outdoor, landslide, ice cream, gateway, rainbow, bedroom etc.

Possessive Nouns
A Noun that indicates the possession of something. Generally it is formed by adding apostrophes. They are both singular and plural.
e.g. cat’s, boss’s, Sam’s, Mary’s, people’s, Florida’s, sun’s, one’s, shirt’s, dentist’s, children’s, men’s, visitor’s etc.


PRONOUN

Pronoun is the word which is used instead of noun or noun phrase. It takes the place of a noun.
e.g. I, we, you, you, he, she, it, they, my, these, whom, some etc.

TYPES OF PRONOUNS

Personal Pronouns
A Pronoun that indicates a word used as substitute for a particular person. They are used as subject, object or complement.  
e.g. I, you, he, she, it, we they, me, him, her, us, them etc.
     

Possessive Pronouns
A Pronoun that indicates the possession or ownership in a phrase or sentence.  It shows that something belongs to someone.
e.g. my, our, your, his, her, its, their, mine, ours, yours, hers, theirs etc.     

Reflexive Pronouns
A Pronoun that refers or reflects back to the subject of a sentence or clause. It is used as a direct object.
e.g. myself, yourself, himself, herself, oneself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves etc.

Relative Pronouns
A pronoun that indicates the connection of clause or phrase with noun or pronoun. They are introduced relatively or dependently.
e.g. that, who, whom, whose, which, when, where etc.

Reciprocal Pronouns
A Pronoun that indicates the mutual sharing of something in person or persons. It is used to identify an action or feeling.
e.g. each other, one another

Demonstrative Pronouns
A Pronoun that indicates something specific, replacing noun. It shows the distance and difference between two things.
e.g.
this, that, these, those, such, none, neither etc.

Indefinite Pronouns
A Pronoun that indicates one or more uncertain objects, beings, or places. They do not indicate the specific thing.
e.g. all, any, more, most, both, few, many, neither, none, each, every, some, anyone, nobody etc.

Interrogative Pronouns
A Pronoun that indicates a word used to ask a question or to get information. There are only five Interrogative Pronouns in English.
e.g. what, who, which, whom, and whose.

ADJECTIVE

Adjective is the word which provides information about noun or pronoun. Adjective describes or modifies a noun.
e.g. happy, clever, many, few, thirty, hundred, this, that, who, how, a, an, the etc.

TYPES OF ADJECTIVES

Qualitative/Descriptive Adjective
An Adjective that indicates quality, degree or kind of a person, place or thing. It adds more information about Noun, such as color, size or shape.
e.g. big, white, rich, red, poor, happy, beautiful, hungry, lucky, amazing, large, brown, thick, fat, small etc.

Quantitative Adjective
An Adjective that indicates the exact or approximate amount or quantity. It describes the measurement, but not in exact numbers.
e.g. enough, few, any, some, much, more, little, sufficient, whole, all, several, most, each, either, neither etc.

Demonstrative Adjective
An Adjective that indicates relative position of a noun. It helps to identify a specific person, place or thing.
e.g. this, that, these, those

Possessive Adjective
An Adjective that indicates the possession of the noun. It is modifier, which demonstrates noun’s ownership.
e.g. my, your, his, her, their, its, our

Interrogative Adjective
An Adjective that indicates the modification of a noun by asking a question.
e.g. which, what, whose

Distributive Adjectives
An Adjective that indicates the reference of each person or thing separately. It is always used with singular noun.
e.g. each, every, any, either, neither, one, both etc.

Numerical Adjectives/Adjectives of Number
An Adjective that indicates a number or numerical order. It denotes the number of noun, also the order in which it stands.
e.g. one, two, three, thirty seven, hundred, first, second, third, fiftieth, twelfth, last etc.

Articles
An Adjective that is used as Article. Basically, an Article is known as an Adjective. It is used to indicate Definite or Indefinite situation.
e.g. a, an, the


VERB

Verb is the word which shows action, event or state. It is known as the key word in the sentence.
e.g. give, write, play, became, made, am, is, are, do, did etc.

TYPES OF VERBS

Action Verbs
A Verb that indicates an action. It further indicates what the subject is doing or has done or will do.
e.g. run, make, take, give, show, sit, go, write, think, walk, talk, sing, play, bring, dance, jump, think etc.

Action Verbs can be either transitive or intransitive.

Transitive Verbs

– used with an object
– always followed by a direct or indirect object
– accepts one or more objects
Examples
 I like to play football.
 We need to keep our body healthy.
 Julie loves animals and birds.
 Have you cleaned the room?
 Did they complete the online course?
Can I use your phone?
Shall we sit in the hall?

Intransitive Verbs
– used without an object
– never followed by a direct or indirect object
– may followed by an adverb
Examples
The shop opens at 9 am.
The singers sing.
They suddenly appeared.
It rained heavily last night.
Laura rises slowly from her seat.
We stayed in Jerusalem for two weeks.
To die is better than to surrender.

Linking Verbs
A Verb that connects or links a subject to the predicate in the sentence. Linking verb systematically connects to noun or adjective. Grammatically, this noun or adjective is called Subject Complement. Linking Verb proves the power and status of action. It gives information about subject. 

Examples-
Smith became a professional singer.
(The Verb became links the Subject Smith to its Complement a professional singer)
My brother is in government service.
(The Verb is links the Subject My brother to its Complement in government service)

I feel very happy when someone praises me.
Sometimes, they behave like a joker .
Antony is fond of reading stories.
It is raining heavily outside.
The boy seemed nervous after exam.
They were in the library when the teacher came.

Helping Verbs
A Verb that comes before the main verb is called Helping Verb. Helping verb and main verb form a Verb phrase. Grammatically, Helping Verb is known as Auxiliary Verb. There are two types of Helping Verb

Primary Auxiliary
 To beam, is, are, was, were, being, been, will be
 To havehave, has, had, having, will have
 To dodo, does, did, will do

Modal Auxiliary

can, could, shall, should, will, would,
may, might, must, ought to, used to,
need to, dare to, have to


ADVERB

Adverb is the word which provides extra information about verb, adjective or other adverb. It helps to modify and qualify verb, adjective or other adverb.
e.g. globally, seriously, more, quite, very, too, always, inside, daily etc.

TYPES OF ADVERBS
       Adverbs of Time
       Adverbs of Place
       Adverbs of Manner
       Adverbs of Reason
       Adverbs of Degree
       Adverbs of Frequency
       Adverbs of Negation
       Adverbs of Interrogation


PREPOSITION

Preposition is the word which expresses the relationship between a noun and other words. It is always followed by a noun or pronoun.
e.g. in, on, of, over, at, between etc.

Types of Prepositions
       Prepositions of Time
       Prepositions of Place
       Prepositions of Manner
       Prepositions of Movement
       Prepositions of Agent
       Prepositions of Measure
       Phrase Prepositions


CONJUNCTION

Conjunction is the word which links words, phrases and sentences. It is an invariable element of English grammar.
e.g. and, or, but, yet, as neither, so, whether etc.

Types of Conjunctions
       Subordinating Conjunctions
       Coordinating Conjunctions
       Correlative Conjunctions


INTERJECTION

Interjection is the word which shows strong and spontaneous feelings, emotions and sentiments. These expressions are presented in a shortest way.
e.g. Ah!  Alas!  Ouch!  Well!  Best luck!  Amazing!  Outstanding!  Exactly!

Types of Interjections
      Interjections of Greetings
      Interjection for Surprise
      Interjections for Praise
      Interjections for Joy
      Interjections for Attention
      Interjections for Sorrow

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